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Due to the outcomes of those 25 electoral actions, democracy was on the poll in 2020

Gerrymandering and Redistricting Reform

Missouri, New Jersey, and Virginia all voted on constitutional amendments that affect redistribution, and the result was a mixed bag. In Missouri, Republicans tabled a misleading amendment to that ballot will effectively exempt reform that voters passed overwhelmingly in 2018 to make the redistribution of legislation more equitable, and the GOP successfully got voters to partially overturn the reform by adding reforms to token ethics. This measure was passed with only 51-49 points.

Meanwhile, New Jersey voters were 58-42 in favor of accepting an amendment tabled by Democrats to vote on law redistribution by the 2023 elections in case census data is delayed. The move was intended to protect incumbents from working two more years in new districts, which is detrimental to New Jersey's growing Asian and Latin American populations. their legal share in the representation would be delayed by two more years if the census fails to meet the February 15, 2021 deadline of the change.

In Virginia, voters between 66 and 34 passed a measure to create a non-partisan redistribution commission The split democratic lawmakers of the state, with the support of the GOP, allowed an amendment whereby the Democrats gave up their own power to Gerrymander. This reform, which creates a commission appointed half by bipartite lawmakers and half by retired judges, was a compromise with Republican lawmakers and contains some notable shortcomings. Overall, however, this should lead to relatively impartial districts for Congress and the state parliament after 2020.

Reform of the electoral system

In several countries, efforts have been made to replace the existing electoral system with something that more faithfully reflects voter preferences. These measures were aimed at the existing system of elections with multiple winners, in which a third candidate can play "spoilers" and cost the runner-up a victory. They all aimed to ensure the majority, but not all likely had the same positive effect.

In Alaska, voters have passed a measure (which will range from 50.5 to 49.5 as of Wednesday) to get an immediate runoff for the presidency and to close traditional party primaries for downballot competitions by a "top 4" primer replace in which all candidates regardless of party run on a single main ballot. In these primaries, the four candidates with the most votes will advance to an immediate runoff election Voters arrange their preferences. If neither candidate wins a majority, the last-placed finisher is eliminated in sequence by assigning their votes to each voter's subsequent preferences. This process is repeated until a candidate wins a majority.

However, voters in Massachusetts declined by a margin of 55-45 to immediately vote for primary and general election at the state and congressional levels. In 2016, Maine became the first state to pass the version that Massachusetts voted on that year, and Maine expanded it to include presidential elections for 2020, though the president's race wasn't close enough to require an immediate runoff. Such ranked voting systems can reduce the spoiler problem and help protect the majority rule.

At the local level, St. Louis, Missouri was the first major US city to pass a newer reform for multiple-winner elections by passing a variant of what is known as the "consent vote". Have voters cast up to one vote for each candidate in the all-party primary, and let the two candidates get the most votes in the first round before the general election. This system aims to avoid some of the complications of instant voting, but it is largely untested in real-world elections, unlike instant voting, which has a long history both domestically and abroad.

As a relief to fair election results and the representation of blacks and Latinos, the Floridians voted only 57-43 ahead of the introduction of a "top 2 elementary school" for state-level office, which means that it has failed because Florida at least 60% needed for the passage. This system, used in California and Washington, has resulted in large parties being banned from winning general election simply because their votes were split among too many candidates in the primary. It could have catastrophically made it much harder for black voters to vote their elected candidates in Florida, and faced a lawsuit aimed at invalidating them on that ground.

Eventually, voters overwhelmingly passed a measure that the GOP-led Mississippi Legislature was elected to on a lawsuit Repeal of part of his constitution by Jim Crow of 1890 This has created an electoral college-style system for determining the winner of elections to governor and other national executive offices. This system was further strained by GOP gerrymandering so it should have It was impossible for Democrats and the black voters who support them to ever win nationwide. Instead, the new reform requires a separate runoff election if neither candidate wins a majority. This method is not ideal, but it is fairer than the status quo.

Limitations of the voting process

In a grand victory against the GOP's efforts to cement its power by undermining fair election results, Arkansas voters voted Florida and North Dakota all rejected elections that would have made it difficult, if not impossible, for the reformers to put new measures of their own on the ballot paper in the future. This is especially important in Arkansas and North Dakota, as proponents of unsuccessful efforts to reorganize reform measures are likely to try again in future election cycles.

Over the past decade, Republican lawmakers have responded to electoral initiatives aimed at strengthening representative democracy by trying to limit the initiative process itself. While direct democracy has its own shortcomings, it is an important tool in protecting voting rights, restricting GOP gerrymandering and adopting electoral reforms.

Prohibition of non-citizen votes

Republicans in Alabama, Colorado and Florida Voters successfully passed amendments to their constitutions that replace language and guarantee that "every citizen" can vote with the wording "only one citizen".

While these measures would have little or no impact on the status quo, they would prevent local governments from experimenting with letting legal permanent residents who lack citizenship continue to vote in local elections, which a handful of small towns in the US and many do European democracies is already allow. In addition, replacing a guarantee that all citizens have the right to vote with a requirement that one must be a citizen to vote opens the door to potentially attacking citizens' voting rights in future legal disputes.

Efforts to lower the voting age

San Francisco voters narrowly rejected a proposal to lower the voting age in local elections by just 50.8-49.2 years to 16 years. That's a modest drop in opposition to the proposal's 52-48 defeat in 2016. But only in the Bay Area in Oakland, California did voters agree to lower the voting age in school council elections 2-1 to 16 years.

While San Francisco narrowly avoided becoming the first major U.S. city to lower the voting age, the idea has been supported in recent years by a number of small towns nationally and by a majority of the U.S. House Democratic Caucus for local elections accepted voted for it in federal elections last year. In a number of foreign democracies such as Austria, Brazil and UK Scotland, 16-year-olds can vote for their legislative bodies as early as elections, so the reform is hardly unprecedented in a global context.

Other measures

By a 52-48 margin, Puerto Rico voters have approved a measure Voting through the New Progressive Party polling the island's residents whether their government should seek statehood for the area or retain their current Commonwealth status. However, The move is not legally binding, and Republicans in Congress are likely to block statehood if they retain control of the Senate.

If the Democrats win both Georgia runoffs and gain power in the Senate, they could eliminate the filibuster to achieve statehood by simple majority. That would mean there would be more than 3 million American citizens represented in the House and Senate. It would be humble too Mitigating the prejudices of the upper chamber against color voters and possibly also reduce the party-political orientation towards the GOP, although this would not be guaranteed.

Meanwhile, Colorado voters voted 52-48 against the GOP's efforts to repeal a bill the Democrats passed to join the National Popular Vote Interstate Compact, which assigns a state's votes on the electoral college to the national referendum winner would if states signed with a majority of the electoral vote. The compact one has won steam Since Trump's election in 2016, Colorado was the first swing state to join in 2019. The result of this vote might encourage Democrats in other swing states are following Colorado's lead.

While almost every state constitution protects the right to vote in some way, Nevada voters have passed a measure to go further Anchoring the right to vote in its constitution with modernized language to protect certain methods of electoral access. California voters, meanwhile, expanded the vote to include tens of thousands of citizens paroled on conviction for a crime, and joined 19 other states that did not disenfranchise anyone who was not in prison, turning 18 in the general election old.

Finally Oregon was one of the last states This allowed individuals to donate unlimited sums of money directly to candidates in state elections, but voters passed a democratically-backed amendment to allow lawmakers to finally set limits on campaign donations. A Supreme Court ruling earlier this year broken a precedent that had set limits However, codifying the legislature's ability to regulate campaign donations ensures that the existence of such thresholds and disclosure requirements does not depend on the constantly changing composition of the courts.

Below is a table that summarizes all of the 25 voting results we recorded and you A spreadsheet version can be found here.

RESPONSIBILITY
SURNAME
RESULT
OBJECT
A hit
DESCRIPTION

Alabama
Amendment 1
Passed
Citizenship voting
negative
Replaces the guarantee that "every citizen" can vote with the requirement that "only one citizen" can vote

Alaska
Measure 2
Passed
Reform of the electoral system
Positive or neutral
Adopts a top 4 area code with general runoffs; Adds disclosure requirements for campaign funding

Arkansas
Problem 2
Passed
Term restrictions
Neutral
Relaxes the lifelong deadlines for lawmakers

Arkansas
Edition 3
Failed
Electoral initiative process
negative
Tightening of the geographical distribution restrictions for the signature requirements for electoral initiatives in order to make liberally supported initiatives more difficult

California
Sentence 17
Passed
Criminal disenfranchisement
positive
Eliminates the disenfranchisement of voters on parole for conviction of a crime

California
Sentence 18
Failed
Choice age
positive
Allow 17 year olds to vote in primary elections when they turn 18 in the general election

Colorado
Amendment 76
Passed
Citizenship voting
negative
Replaces the guarantee that "every citizen" can vote with the requirement that "only one citizen" can vote

Colorado
Theorem 113
Passed
Electoral College
Positive (for passage)
Referendum on the implementation or repeal of the National Popular Vote Interstate Compact Accession Act for the Electoral College – "Yes" vote keeps the law in effect

Florida
Amendment 1
Passed
Citizenship voting
negative
Replaces the guarantee that "every citizen" can vote with the requirement that "only one citizen" can vote

Florida
Amendment 3
Failed
Reform of the electoral system
negative
Adopts a top 2 elementary school (also known as a two-lap system) in state-level races

Florida
Amendment 4
Failed
Electoral initiative process
negative
Requires electoral initiatives to win (at least 60%) electoral support in two consecutive general elections instead of one

Iowa
Constituent Assembly
Failed
Constituent Assembly
Neutral
Decides whether a state constitutional convention should be convened

Massachusetts
Question 2
Failed
Reform of the electoral system
positive
Adopts instant votes (also known as ranked elections) in congressional, state, and state-wide elections

Mississippi
Measure 2
Passed
Reform of the electoral system
positive
Abolish the Jim Crow-era "electoral college" in statewide elections and replace it with designating a separate runoff election if no candidate wins a majority

Missouri
Amendment 1
Passed
Term restrictions
Neutral
Establishes a two-time limit for statewide executive offices below the governor

Missouri
Amendment 3
Passed
Legislative redistribution
negative
Effectively overturns a voter-approved 2018 election measure that makes legislative redistribution more fair to both parties

Nevada
Question 4
Passed
Right to choose
positive
Guarantees the right to vote via certain methods

New Jersey
Question 3
Passed
Legislative redistribution
negative
Postpones redistribution of legislation in 2021 to the 2023 electoral cycle if the publication of census data is postponed to February 15, 2021

North Dakota
Measure 2
Failed
Electoral initiative process
negative
Requires an electoral initiative to win electoral support in two consecutive general elections instead of one if legislature does not allow it

Oregon
Measure 107
Passed
Campaign funding
positive
Allows the legislature to set donation limits and disclosure requirements for campaigns in state and local elections

Virginia
Change of the restructuring commission
Passed
Redistribute reform
positive
Create a non-partisan commission to draw congressional and legislative districts

Puerto Rico
Referendum on statehood
Passed
Statehood
positive
Expresses yes / no position on whether Puerto Rico should seek statehood

Oakland, CA.
Measure QQ
Passed
Choice age
positive
Reduces the voting age for school council elections to 16 years

San Francisco, CA.
Theorem G.
Failed
Choice age
positive
Lower the voting age in local elections to 16 years

St. Louis, MO
Theorem D.
Passed
Reform of the electoral system
positive
Takes the main vote of approval when the top two participants advance to the general election for the local elections

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